A compartment syndrome occurs when the muscle expands upon exercise (which is normal), but the fascial compartment around the muscle is tight, so this cause a compression that is painful. Some call this shin splints when it affects the front of the leg or the anterior tibial muscle. Often surgery was considered the best option to release the tight fascia because most other treatments for this generally has a poor outcome. Now there is some hope. There is one study that has shown that if you shorten the stride length, strike the ground with the forefoot when running, you probably can fix this without the surgery. The study did show quite significant results but did not have a control group, so some question if this is enough to do this with all those who have the anterior compartment syndrome. However, given that you are often facing surgery for this condition, it is probably worth it.